Terms

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Q. OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
Q. RTF (Rich Text Format)
Q. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Q. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
Q. JPEG (Joint Photographers Expert Group)
Q. GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)
Q. PDF (Portable Document Format)
Q. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
Q. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Q. Deskewing
Q. Indexing
Q. Microfilm


Q. OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

A. Conversion of paper-based text into editable electronic format such as ASCII, Word, Excel etc. This is done by scanning the paper into a format such as TIFF, then translating the image into character codes (ASCII); the range of output possibilities is defined by the particular version of OCR software in use.


Q. RTF (Rich Text Format)

A.¬†File format that lets you exchange text files between different word processors in different operating systems. The RTF specification uses the ANSI, PC-8, Macintosh, and IBM PC character sets; it defines control words and symbols that serve as “common denominator” formatting commands. When saving a file in the Rich Text Format, the file is processed by an RTF writer which converts the word processor’s markup to the RTF language. When being read, the control words and symbols are processed by an RTF reader that converts the RTF language into formatting for the word processor that will display the document.


Q. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

A. Code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. Most computers use ASCII to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another.


Q. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)

A. The TIFF format was developed in 1986 to provide a standard format for image files. TIFF is operating system and display device independent. TIFF files can be in any of several classes, including black & white (bitonal), greyscale or colour, and can include CCITT Group 4, JPEG, or LZW compression.


Q. JPEG (Joint Photographers Expert Group)

A. JPEG is a lossy compression algorithm used to compress colour and greyscale images down to 5% of their uncompressed size. Lossy compression means that some of the data in the original file is lost as a result of the abbreviation of information (compression algorithm) being used.


Q. GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)

A. A service mark used for a raster-based colour graphics file format, often used on the World Wide Web to store graphics. The GIF uses the 2D raster data type and is encoded in binary. There are two versions of the format, 87a and GIF89a. Version 89a, allows for the possibility of an animated GIF, which is a short sequence of images within a single GIF file. A patent-free replacement for the GIF, the Portable Network Graphics (PNG) format, has been developed by an Internet committee and major browsers support it or soon will.


Q. PDF (Portable Document Format)

A. A file format developed by Adobe Systems which captures all the elements of the original file; text, graphics, font, layout etc. PDFs are in wide use on the web and offer great versatility for distributing and sharing information. See Adobe.com for information and/or to download a free copy of Acrobat Reader.


Q. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

A. This is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page’s words and images for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element (but many people also refer to it as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end. HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of HTML is HTML 4.0.


Q. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

A. A standard Internet protocol, FTP is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet. FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet’s TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. FTP is also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers.


Q. Deskewing

A. Software-driven action to straighten or adjust an image that was scanned in crooked or where the data on the page is crooked in relation to the page’s edge.


Q. Indexing

A. Creating a database of information to refer to the appropriate images resident on the system. Index databases can consist of single index fields or multiple index fields or full-text repositories. (See OCR).


Q. Microfiche

A. A transparent sheet of photographic film containing images arranged in a series of rows (grid) and having a heading that contains identifying information in text that is large enough to be read without magnification. The most common microfiche are made by filming textual or graphic material at a reduction ratio of approximately 24:1 and usually accommodate 5 rows of images.


Q. Microfilm

A. Although the term is used for the photographic film that is employed in producing microforms in general, it is also specifically used to designate the long strips of photographic film that are mounted on reels, in cartridges, and in cassettes. The strips of film together with the containers that house them are called, respectively, microfilm reels, microfilm cartridges , and microfilm cassettes . They are all roll formats in which microimages appear in linear rather than grid array.

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